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Polymers are unique chemical compounds with a high molecular weight, whose molecules are composed of a enormous number of repeating groups.

The term "polymer" was introduced into science as early as 1833 to designate a special type of isomerism, in which polymers of the identical composition have different molecular weights (for example, oxygen and ozone). This definition did not correspond to the modern concept of polymers.The first references to synthetic polymers date back to 1838 and 1839.

Natural polymers are the result of biosynthesis in the cells of living organisms.

Polymers can be natural (proteins, nucleic acids, resins) or synthetic (polyethylene).

Non-crystallized polymers may be in three states: glasslike, highly elastic and viscous-flow.

The main characteristics of polymers are their chemical composition, molecular weight and molecular-weight distribution.

Polymeric materials are an exceptionally important class of modern materials extensively used in all branches of engineering and technology, in agriculture and everyday life.They are notable for a wide range of possibilities for adjusting their composition, structure, and properties. The major advantages of polymeric materials are as follows: the low cost, comparative simplicity, high productivity, low energy intensity and low waste rate of production and processing methods, low density, high resistance to corrosive environments, atmospheric and radiation effects and impact loads, low thermal conductivity, high optical, radio and electrical properties, and good adhesive properties.

The main types of polymeric materials are as follows: plastics and composite materials (composties), rubbers, paint materials and paint coats, adhesives, polymeric compounds, sealants, polymer concrete, fibrous film and sheet materials (fiber-reinforced plastics, nonwoven fabrics, polymer films, artificial leather, paper etc.).